The steelmaking process

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1
Input raw materials

The range of input values differ according to route

Iron ore

Limestone

Coal

Scrap

Alternative fuels

Natural gas

2
Raw materials preparation
3
Ironmaking
4
Steelmaking

Two main routes

 

Now that the steel has been made, it is cast into three semi-finished shapes.

5
Semi-finished products

Slabs

Billets

Blooms

 

These three main products are then hot-rolled into a wide range of flat and long products.

6
Hot-rolled products

Flat Products

Plate

Coils

Long Products

Rebar

Bars

Wire rods

Welded/seamless tubes

Structural shapes

Rails

7
Finishing operations

Painting

Metal coating

Cold rolling

 
OUTPUT PRODUCTS
 

There is also a wide range of valuable co-products from the steelmaking process which are sold to other industries.

8
Co-products and their uses

Slag

Cement for road construction

Fertilisers and soil improvement

Paving stones for hydraulic engineering

Sea forestation

Dust and sludge

Internal and external use of iron and alloying elements

Chemicals

Use as input material for the chemical industry

Emulsions and used oils

Internal use as reducing agents

Process gases

Heat and electricity

Carbon capture and utilisation

9
Steel applications

Wind turbines

Packaging

Motor vehicles

Bridges

White goods

Rail tracks and trains

Pipes

Buildings and factories

Ships and containers

Machinery

Medical equipment

Metal products

Solar panels

Furniture

Electrical steels